There are many labels used today to describe the different learning difficulties people experience. Such as: ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder), ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), LD (Learning Disability), APD (Auditory Processing Disorder), etc.

All of these are usually viewed as separate from one another. However, the symptoms of these labels can result from disorientation, which is at the root of most learning difficulties. Disorientation occurs in varying degrees from one person to the next and from moment to moment. The following are some of the most common symptoms of disorientation.

  • Changes or reverses shapes and/or sequences of letters/numbers.
  • Spells incorrectly/inconsistently or how they hear the words.
  • Skips or misses words or lines when reading or writing.
  • Sees letters and/or numbers move, disappear, grow or shrink.
  • Alters words and letters when reading.
  • Omits, ignores or does not appear to see punctuation or capitalization.
  • Hearing     
  • Difficulty putting thought into words.
  • Speaks in halting phrases, difficulty making speech sounds.
  • Has difficulty blending sounds, perceives sounds in the wrong places.
  • Stutters under stress, mispronounces words.
  • Transposes phrases, words and syllables when speaking.
  • Accused of not listening or appears inattentive.
  • Hears sounds louder, softer, nearer or further away than they actually are.
  • Balance/Movement     
  • Clumsy, uncoordinated in general/only at times, inability to sit still.
  • Experiences dizziness, nausea, headaches or stomach aches while reading.
  • Poor sense of direction.
  • Difficulty with handwriting.
  • Often confuses left/right and/or over/under.
  • Time and Self Esteem     
  • Appears hyperactive/under-active, easily distracted, daydreams and/or loses train of thought easily.
  • Difficulty telling time, being on time or managing time.
  • Trouble with sequencing, pattern, order and math concepts.
  • Feels dumb, has poor self-esteem, tries to disguise weakness.
  • Easily frustrated and emotional about school, reading or testing.
  • Professional services described as Davis®, Davis Dyslexia Correction®, including Davis Symbol Mastery®, Davis Orientation Counseling®, and Davis Learning StrategiesTM services may only be provided by persons who are trained and licensed through Davis Dyslexia Association International.  



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